Bioavailability by delivery method:

Delivery Method Bioavailability (%) Onset Time Advantages Disadvantages
Smoking/Vaping 34% – 56% Rapid (Minutes) Quick Absorption, Easy Dosing Potential Respiratory Irritation
Edibles 6% – 20% Delayed (30 min – 2 hrs) Longer-lasting Effects, Discreet Consumption Variable Absorption, Unpredictable Onset
Tinctures (Under the Tongue) 20% – 30% Moderate (15-30 min) Bypasses First-pass Metabolism, Faster Onset Limited Product Availability
Topicals <5% Variable Targeted Relief, No Psychoactive Effects Limited Systemic Absorption
Transdermal Patches 10% – 35% Gradual (over hours) Controlled Release, Long-lasting Effects Limited Availability, Slower Onset
Beverages 4% – 12% Variable Convenient, Discreet Variable Absorption, Unpredictable Onset

Cannabinoid types:

Cannabinoid Found in Cannabis Primary Effects Medical Benefits
THC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) Marijuana, some strains of hemp Euphoria, relaxation, altered senses Pain relief, nausea suppression, appetite stimulation
CBD (Cannabidiol) Both marijuana and hemp Relaxation, reduced anxiety, mild sedation Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, anti-seizure
CBN (Cannabinol) Develops as THC ages Mild psychoactive effects, sedation Sleep aid, anti-convulsant, appetite stimulant
CBG (Cannabigerol) Found in low concentrations in most cannabis strains Stimulation, mood elevation, anti-inflammatory Neuroprotective, anti-bacterial, promotes bone growth

Cannabis types:

Type Primary Species THC:CBD Ratio Common Effects
Indica Cannabis indica Higher THC Relaxation, sedation, body high
Sativa Cannabis sativa Varies, often higher in THC Euphoria, creativity, cerebral effects
Hybrid Combination of indica and sativa Varies, balanced or THC/CBD dominant Varies based on specific strain genetics

Product type:

Product Type Main Ingredients Common Uses Onset Time Duration
Smoking/Vaping Cannabis flower or concentrates for inhalation Rapid onset, easy dosing Minutes 1 – 3 hours
Edibles Cannabis-infused food or drink Long-lasting relief, discreet consumption 30 minutes – 2 hours 4 – 12 hours
Tinctures Cannabis extract in alcohol or oil Sublingual administration for fast onset 15 – 30 minutes 2 – 4 hours
Topicals Cannabis-infused lotions, balms, creams Localized pain relief, skincare Variable Variable
Vapes Cannabis extract or oil for inhalation Rapid onset, discreet consumption Minutes 1 – 3 hours
Beverages Cannabis-infused beverages Convenient, discreet Variable Variable